Red Valley and Meskendir Valleys all covered with vineyards. And inside the vineyard or in the gardens around these are being planted mostly apricot, plum, apple, cherry,sour cherry, walnut, mulberry and quince trees.
Pigeon houses built in rocks have been produced in order the farmers possessing small gardens in the valley in the valley can obtain more products. Because, the manure obtained from pigeon houses are being used to increase productivity in the planted areas in the valley. In the valleys frequently is being crossed through short tunnels.
While you hiking at Red and Meskendir Valleys you can also explore many beehives carved out of the rock too. The reasons behind the rock beehives are to help plants pollinate naturally and produce honey. Just as the industrial fertilizers reduced the pigeon houses, the use of pesticides reduced the number of beehives.
Beehives has two kinds: 1-Behive is completely carved out of the rock 2-Fissures are carved in to the rock and honeycombs are placed into them. Swarming takes place in May and swarms are moved to the rock beehive by beekeepers. Honey is collected after vineharvest.
Red and Meskendir Valleys are also one of the most significant in terms of history of Christianity. In early times of Christianity, first Jusus and his apostles, then their followers were persecuted by Roman authorities. After Jusus, Christians visited the region under the guidance of St. Paul and they discovered rock-cut caves, which would alloow them to practice their religion freely. After christinaty became legal religion, cappadocia produced 3 saints and they introduced the idea of monastery into Christianity; in 4th century, first monasteries were built, nowaday over 10 cave monasteries can be visited in the valley.